Remediation technologies are many and varied but can be categorized into ex-situ and in-situ methods. Ex-situ methods involve excavation of impacted soils and subsequent treatment at the surface. In-situ methods seek to treat the contamination without removing the soils.
Casey Resources, Inc. (CRI) provides innovative and cost-effective solutions for handling, treating, and disposing of hazardous waste. Our solutions are evaluated in terms of regulatory compliance, cost, technical feasibility, and environmental and public health impacts. A sampling of the techniques we use in our multidisciplinary approach includes a risk-based approach, thorough alternatives analyses, innovative remedial technologies, and early involvement of regulators. In addition, CRI's technical capabilities encompass hydrology, geology, hydrogeology, geochemistry, environmental engineering, toxicology, risk assessment, industrial hygiene, and air toxicity modeling.
CRI supports a broad range of actions: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) restoration actions, traditional wastewater management, landfill closures and caps, cleanups at military installations, actions incorporating subsurface barrier walls and laboratory treatability studies, remediation of leaking and corroded tank farms, cleanup of contaminant plumes, remediation actions using solidification/stabilization techniques, and remediation of sludge ponds and pesticide pits. CRI develops hazardous waste solutions that avoid or mitigate future environmental, legal, and financial problems.
We serve a wide range of industries: automotive, bulk and specialty chemicals, metal finishing and electroplating, minerals processing, petrochemicals, petroleum refining and marketing, synthetic organic chemicals, textiles, and utilities.
Requirements for Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) through RCRA: Congress directed the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to create regulations to manage hazardous waste from "the cradle to the grave." Under this mandate, the EPA developed strict requirements for all aspects of hazardous waste management including the treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous waste. In addition to these federal requirements, states may develop more stringent requirements or requirements that are broader in scope than the federal regulations.
Hazardous waste is a hazardous material destined for disposal or recycling with properties that make it dangerous or potentially harmful to human health or the environment. The universe of hazardous wastes is large and diverse. Hazardous wastes can be liquids, solids, contained gases, and/or sludges. They can be the by-products of manufacturing processes, or simply discarded commercial products like cleaning fluids or pesticides.
Generally, environmental toxicity is quantified through the use of the Toxicity Characteristic Leachate Procedure (TCLP) test (Method 1311), as required by the EPA.
Hazardous Wastes in the United States: In the United States, hazardous wastes may also be "listed" by the EPA. Listed hazardous wastes are generated by specific industries and processes and are considered hazardous waste, irrespective of sample results.
Many types of businesses generate hazardous waste. Some are small companies that may be located in a community. For example, the following types of businesses typically generate hazardous waste: dry cleaners, automobile repair shops, hospitals, exterminators, junk or auto salvage yards, and photo processing centers. Some hazardous waste generators are larger companies like chemical manufacturers, electroplating companies, and oil refineries.
A United States facility that treats, stores, or disposes of hazardous waste must obtain a permit for doing so under RCRA.
In regulatory terms, a RCRA hazardous waste is a waste that appears on one of the four hazardous wastes lists (F-list, K-list, P-list, or U-list), or exhibits at least one of four characteristics: ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity. For more information on the RCRA statute and links to the regulations, visit RCRA Laws and Regulations.
By definition, the EPA determined that some specific wastes are hazardous. These wastes are incorporated into lists published by the Agency. These lists are organized into three categories:
The F-list (non-specific source wastes). This list identifies wastes from common manufacturing and industrial processes, such as solvents that have been used in cleaning or degreasing operations. Because the processes producing these wastes can occur in different sectors of industry, the F-listed wastes are known as wastes from non-specific sources. Wastes included on the F-list can be found in the regulations at 40 CFR §261.31.
The K-list (source-specific wastes). This list includes certain wastes from specific industries, such as petroleum refining or pesticide manufacturing. Certain sludges and wastewaters from treatment and production processes in these industries are examples of source-specific wastes. Wastes included on the K-list can be found in the regulations at 40 CFR §261.32.
The P- list and the U- list (discarded commercial chemical products). These lists include specific commercial chemical products in an unused form. Some pesticides and some pharmaceutical products become hazardous waste when discarded. Wastes included on the P- and U- lists can be found in the regulations at 40 CFR §261.33 (Characteristic Wastes).
Waste that does not meet any of the listings explained above may still be considered a hazardous waste if exhibits one of the four characteristics defined in 40 CFR Part 261 Subpart C: ignitability (D001), corrosivity (D002), reactivity (D003), and toxicity (D004 - D043).
Ignitability - Ignitable wastes can create fires under certain conditions, are spontaneously combustible, or have a flash point less than 60 °C (140 °F). Examples include waste oils and used solvents. For more details, see 40 CFR §261.21. Test methods that may be used to determine ignitability include the Pensky-Martens Closed-Cup Method for Determining Ignitability (Method 1010a), the Setaflash Closed-Cup Method for Determining Ignitability (Method 1020b), and the Ignitability of Solids (Method 1030).
Corrosivity - Corrosive wastes are acids or bases (pH less than or equal to 2, or greater than or equal to 12.5) that are capable of corroding metal containers, such as storage tanks, drums, and barrels. Battery acid is an example. For more details, see 40 CFR §261.22 . The test method that may be used to determine corrosivity is the Corrosivity Towards Steel (Method 1110a).
Reactivity - Reactive wastes are unstable under "normal" conditions. They can cause explosions, toxic fumes, gases, or vapors when heated, compressed, or mixed with water. Examples include lithium-sulfur batteries and explosives. For more details, see 40 CFR §261.23. There are currently no test methods available.
Toxicity - Toxic wastes are harmful or fatal when ingested or absorbed (e.g. containing mercury, lead). When toxic wastes are land disposed, contaminated liquid may leach from the waste and pollute ground water. Toxicity is defined through a laboratory procedure called the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) (Method 1311). The TCLP helps identify wastes likely to leach concentrations of contaminants that may be harmful to human health or the environment. For more details, see 40 CFR §261.24.